MODAL syndrome

MODAL syndrome (muscle / eye / digit / aorta / lung)is the term proposed to emphasize that lung tumors in cats with feline digit-pulmonary syndrome (PFPS) not only metastasize to the digits. Although SDPF was initially recognized as an entity characterized by subclinical bronchogenic adenocarcinomas that manifested as metastasis in digital tissue, it is now known that some animals also develop aortic thromboembolism (TEA), vertebral metastases that cause pain or myelopathy, ocular metastases, and muscular metastasis with or without digital involvement. In this retrospective work, the authors present cases that include the classic presentation of the SDPF along with other more cryptic examples. SDPF should be suspected in cats with non-cardiogenic ASD and / or digital lesions, and thorough palpation of the musculature, examination of all digits, a chest X-ray and a biochemical profile (CK) to rule out hidden neoplastic emboli in muscle tissue.

Metastatic pulmonary carcinomas in cats (‘feline lung–digit syndrome’): further variations on a theme. JFMS Open Rep 3(1) 2017

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Osteochondrosis

Osteochondrosis is a disorder of endochondral ossification which in horses and pigs is associated with ischemic necrosis of cartilage growth. When the necrotic cartilage fragments osteochondrosis dissecans results. The chondronecrosis occurs mainly due to a defective neovascularization of the ossification area or bacteremia. Other factors that may be involved are trauma, vasculopathies, toxemia and congenital defects of elastin. In this article, the authors review comparatively the disease in horses, pigs, dogs and humans, and discuss particularly on the causes of the vascular disorder that causes osteochondrosis.

An Update on the Pathogenesis of Osteochondrosis. Veterinary Pathology 2015 52(5)

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Toxic household items

Anticoagulants, herbicides, ethylene glycol, alkaloids, etc … are some of the products that come to mind in suspected poisoning in small animals. But they are stereotypes, which affected animals often do not have access. And conversely, rarely we realize that some of the products that can be toxic in dogs and cats are so common and accessible to pets such as some human food. In this paper, the authors describe those common foods at home that can cause poisoning in small animals as well as their active ingredients, mechanisms of action and the associated symptoms.

Household Food items Toxic to Dogs and Cats. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2016 3, 26.

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The worm turns

Coinfection in mice with Schistosoma mansoni reduces mortality induced by Toxocari canis and prevents Plasmodium-associated brain lesions and, on the contrary, promotes replication of Leishmania and enhances susceptibility to tuberculosis. Such interactions are diifuclt to appraise with the reductionist approach of “Koch’s postulates”, that were coined to determine when a particular organism could be held responsible for a particular disease state. The outcome of infection with a given organism does not always equate to disease. Besides the genetic background, intersecting influences of coinfecting organisms (from symbiotic microflora to virulent pathogens) affect the outcome of infection. And, because of their effects orchestrating host immunoregulation and chronic infections, helmiths provide examples of the potential of co-infections to alter diagnosis, course and outcome of disease processes. This paper decribes how helminths infections immunoregulate imflammatory responses and autoimmune reactions, as well as how they modulate pathogenicity, course and outcome to concurrent infection with other pathogens.

The Worm Turns: Trematodes Steering the Course of Co-infections. Vet Pathol 2014 51:328-340

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Zooanthroponosis

While descriptions of emerging pathogens originating in animals that end up representing a risk of zoonosis are increasingly frequent, it does not happen just in the opposite case. Despite the current increase in contact between men and animals (livestock, pets, invasion of ecosystems, anthropogenic development of new habitats, etc) there is little bibliographical information on animal diseases trasmitted by humans. This work represents a comprehensive compilation of all descriptions to the actual date of bacterial, viral and parasitic processes that have led to cases of zooanthroponosis.

Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systemic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals. Plos One. 2014; 9(2):e89055

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Equine eosinophilic enteritis

Equine eosinophilic enteritis (EEE) is a rare digestive disorder usually associated with a multisystemis epitheliotropic syndrome. Affected animals develop diarrhea, weight loss and hypoalbuminemia. The etiology is unknown, although traditionally a hypersensitivity reaction of parasitic origin or a paraneoplastic effect mediated by IL5 have been suspected. In a retrospective study in England, the authors describe that a seasonal character (late summer and autumn) and a particular geographic concentration of cases could suggest some kind of environmental factor or management practices as responsible for the disease. Simultaneously, the study also reveals that young animals are at increased risk of developing EEA

Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), an Emerging Cause of Abdominal Pain in Horses: The Effect of Age, Time and Geographical Location on Risk. PloS One. 2014; 9(12):e112072

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Feline infectious peritonitis

Feline coronavirus (CoV) may present as two morphologically and serologically indistinguishable pathotypes: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), the latter with a greater capacity for replication in monocytes FECV. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most common fatal disease in feline species and, although there are numerous studies and extensive information, its pathogenesis is not fully resolved. This review describes extensively what are the possible ways that have led to the evolution of FECV to FIPV pathotype, the role FECV carriers healthy cats, the transmission capacity of both viruses, elements that influence the appearance of outbreaks, the different clinical presentations, injuries, immunopathogenesis, factors influencing mortality or survival to infection and the various diagnostic methods fo the disease.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Still an Enigma ? Kipar A, Meli ML. Vet Pathol 2014, 51 505-526

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Contagious Neoplasms

The ability of the immune system to reocgnize exogenous elements is one of the factors preventing the development of transmissible tumors. However, two particular tumors are contagious and also naturally: the transmissible venereal tumor in the dog (TVT) and devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Normally, the immune system effector cells or self antigens would prevent transmission of neoplastic cells. However, either through mutations or by generating immune tolerance, some neoplasms have evolved mechanisms to evade the immune system response. This review describes this process in the case of TVT and DFTD.

Immunology of naturally transmisible tumours. Siddle HV. Immunology. 2015. 114 (1): 11-20

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c-Kit in feline mast cell tumors

Most mast cell tumors in cats are considered low aggressive neoplasms unlike what happens in dogs. A variable percentage of these lesions, however, behave as malignant tumors generating visceral dissemination from skin as much as in 22% of cases. But except the mitotic index, there is no consensus on the criteria for recognizing this subgroup of tumors more aggressive.

Considering the linkage in dogs between mutations in the gene (c-Kit) encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor in mast cells and increased cell proliferation and reduced survival rate, it has been considered whether identification of this molecular alteration would allow better understanding and recognition of those more aggressive tumors. As in dogs, cats also develop mutations of c-Kit. However, whereas the distribution of the protein is linked to tumor behavior, altered proto-onogen does not correspond as in dogs with neoplasia development or prognosis. This paper discusses the dubious role of alterations of receptor c-Kit in cats.

Prognostic significance of Kit receptor tyrosine kinase dysregulations in feline cutaneous mast cell tumors. Sabattini S. Vet Pathol. 2013. 50(5):797-805

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Disease in elasmobranchs

Most of us are specialized on pet medicine but few on exotic animal medicine. We seldom regard wild animals as a matter of our veterinary condition though they are the essence of the animal kingdom. Articles like this on sharks and rays are examples that attempt to change this view and remember our profession.

 

In this paper, the authors review cases of illness in 1546 elasmobranchs representing 60 different species of sharks and rays. The results of the study reveal that infectious and inflammatory processes, followed by nutritional, traumatic, and toxic cardiovascular disorders are the most common diseases in elasmobranchs. Bacterial infections usually manifest as septicemia, dermatitis, branchitis and enteritis, and similarly fungal infections also cause hepatitis. Papilloma virus, herpesvirus and adenovirus are among the most common viral processes. Parasitic in its turn are represented by cases nematode infections, ciliate, trematode, coccidiosis, mixozoanosis, amebiasis, flagellate infections and cestoidiasis. Infectious diseases of unknown etiology include cases of enteritis, branchitis, encephalitis, dermatitis and pancreatitis. Finally, the most common toxicologic disorders are cases of “toxic gill disease”, air embolism, and those associated with fenbendazole, ammoniac, chlorine and chloramine. Depending on the process, some species are overrepresented.

A retrospective study of disease in elasmobranchs. Garner MM. Vet Pathol. 2013 50(3):377-389

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